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CHCCSL002 Apply Specialist Interpersonal and Counselling Interview Skills Assessment

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Added on: 2023-02-20 07:05:57
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  • Subject Code :

    CHCCSL002

  • Country :

    Australia

Section 1

INTRODUCTION TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Factors Impacting the Communication Process

1.1 Complete the table below by correctly identifying which component of communication is being described. Select components from the following list:

  • Channels.
  • Context.
  • Feedback.
  • Noise.
  • Participants.
  • Receiver (decoder).
  • Rules.
  • Sender (encoder).

1.2 Select whether the following statements are True or False.

  • Physical and psychological settings make up the context of the communication in the communication process.
  • Messages consist of both intentional and non-intentional components.
  • Rules within relationships and communication are fixed and unable to be changed.
  • Channels are the means and pathways by which messages are sent and can include the use of sound, written symbols, or nonverbal messages, scents, or the distance between two participants.

1.3 Briefly describe the role of the source and the receiver within the communication process. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

Strategies that Enhance Counselling Communication

1.4 What strategies should a counsellor use to ensure that he or she appropriately decodes (i.e. interprets) the message that a client has sent.
a) Active listening
b) Observe non-verbal cues
c) Monitor own values, beliefs and emotions
d) Attending behaviour
e) All of the above

Your response: ?????

1.5 Understanding how a person absorbs and processes information is important for understanding how they communicate. This is known as a person’s learning style. Consider what you have learned about learning styles in order to respond to the questions below.

a) Complete the table below by correctly identifying the most likely primary learning (aural, kinaesthetic, read/write, or visual) style of each of the learners.
Learner

b) Allan is a counsellor who tries to tailor his counselling sessions according to a client’s learning style. Read each of the session descriptions in the table below and, for each, select the client’s likely primary learning style (aural, kinaesthetic, read/write, or visual)

c) Briefly explain why understanding your client’s learning style can help with effective communication within the counselling relationship. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

Communication Barriers

1.6 Complete the table below by identifying the most likely type of communication barrier that would be present in each example. Communication barriers include:

  • Age-related.
  • Cultural.
  • Disability.
  • Individual perceptions.
  • Language.
  • Physical.

1.7 Imagine that you are a school counsellor who, due to budget cuts, has been told that you must now share an office with the school secretary. Identify what communication barrier this is most likely to cause for you and your clients (i.e., students, teachers, and other staff) and briefly explain why. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

1.8 Bill is an Anglo-Australian counsellor (50 years of age) who is seeing a new client, Deborah (an 18 year old Aboriginal female student), for their first session together. They meet in Bill’s office and sit facing each other. Throughout the counselling session Bill seeks to maintain direct eye contact with Deborah. As the session goes on, Bill notices that Deborah is becoming increasingly uncomfortable and is not expressing herself openly.

Identify two (2) potential communication barriers in the above scenario and, in the table below, provide an example of a strategy that Bill could apply to overcome each barrier.

The first row of the table has been completed for you to give you an example format for your response. Note: You must identify two (2) additional potential communication barriers and at least one (1) strategy to overcome each barrier. (Your total response should be approximately 75 words)

1.9 Select the correct two terms, in the correct order, to complete the following sentence:

During counselling, in the case of cultural and perceptive barriers, it is the (1) __________’s responsibility to develop an understanding of the (2) __________’s cultural traditions and do their best to respect them.
(1) client and (2) client.
(1) client and (2) counsellor.
(1) counsellor and (2) client.
(1) counsellor and (2) counsellor.
Your response: ?????

1.10 List three (3) ways a counsellor can address barriers created by client disability. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????
1.11 List three (3) ways in which a counsellor can address environmental barriers. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????
1.12 Identify one (1) communication technique that a counsellor could use to ensure that they understand the client’s point of view and are not making assumptions. (Your response should be approximately 10 words)
?????
Integrating your Knowledge

The following questions require you to draw upon all of the knowledge and skills you have learned throughout this section of the Study Guide.

1.13 Aliya feels overwhelmed. She has three children under the age of five, is the primary caretaker for her mother who suffers from dementia and she is also trying to study for a counselling diploma.

a) List three (3) key areas of cognitive functioning that Aliya’s high levels of stress may affect. (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
?????
b) List three (3) indicators (either verbal or non-verbal) that a counsellor could observe to identify Aliya’s high levels of stress. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????
c) Describe how Aliya’s counsellor could communicate effectively and appropriately with her given her high levels of stress. (Your response should be approximately 100 words)
?????
1.14 Select whether the following statements are True or False.

Challenging is an effective communication strategy to use if a client is in a stressed or traumatised state.
True ? False ?

Stress and trauma may reduce an individual’s ability to listen effectively.

True ? False ?

A counsellor’s values may impact on the communication process.
True ? False ?

 

 

Section 2

MICROSKILLS AND THE COUNSELLING INTERVIEW

What is a Counselling Interview?

2.1 Briefly outline the main aims of a counselling interview. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

2.2 Ivey, Ivey and Zalaquett (2014) developed a five-stage model that can be used as a framework to describe the different tasks that a counsellor seeks to achieve in each counselling interview.

The following table briefly outlines (in no particular order) some specific steps that occur during a counselling session with a client who is experiencing difficulties at work. You must complete the table below by selecting which of Ivey, Ivey and Zalaquett’s stages each step is likely to be taking place in. The stages are:

  • Initiating the session.
  • Gathering data.
  • Mutual goal setting.
  • Working.
  • Ending.

Attending Behaviours

2.3 Identify and briefly describe the three Vs + B of attending behaviour. (Your response should be approximately 30 words for each)
?????
2.4 When used in counselling, attending behaviours should be used to:
a) Let the client know when it is time to stop talking.
b) Make you appear to be listening while you are deciding what to say.
c) Ensure your client knows you are listening to them and understanding what they are saying, so that they can feel more confident to explore their issues with you.
d) Fill in time if you don’t think you can help them.
e) Convey a sense of detachment from your client’s problems. ???

Observation

2.5 During counselling, clients do not always communicate with words. It is important that you learn to apply observation skills to help identify what your clients’ non-verbal behaviours can indicate.

a) Counsellors need to observe and gather information from client’s non-verbal behaviour. For each type of non-verbal behaviour listed in the table below, provide two (2) examples of what each behaviour might indicate. (Your total response should be approximately 100 words)
b) The way in which a person speaks can also provide a counsellor with a wealth of information. List the three (3) things a counsellor should observe about a client’s voice while they are speaking. (Your total response should be approximately 10 words)

2.6 Imagine that you are counselling a new client, Kevin. Kevin is describing an incident that happened at work. He is sitting bolt upright and his arms are crossed. He is frowning and is quite red in the face. He seems to be looking somewhere over your shoulder.
Describe what you might infer from Kevin’s non-verbal communication (i.e., what do you think he might be thinking/feeling). (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

2.7 Imagine that you are counselling a new client, Kyla. Kyla is talking about a difficult childhood experience. She is slumped in her chair and there are tears in her eyes. Although she is smiling, she is swallowing repeatedly and looking down at the floor.

a) Describe what you might infer from Kyla’s non-verbal communication (i.e., what do you think she might be thinking/feeling). (Your response should be approximately 50 words).
b) Briefly describe the verbal and non-verbal communication strategies you should use as Kyla’s counsellor to demonstrate to Kyla that you are listening to her story. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)

Questioning Skills

2.8 Melissa is attending counselling to help her with a problematic work situation. The counsellor wants to encourage Melissa to talk about what has been happening with her supervisor in more depth.

a) What type of question (open or closed) should the counsellor use to achieve this aim?
b) Provide an example of a question the counsellor might ask Melissa to achieve this aim. (Your response should be approximately 20 words)
c) After Melissa tells more of her story, the counsellor wants to clarify whether or not Melissa has reported the issue to her human resources department. What type of question (open or closed) would help the counsellor clarify this?
d) Provide an example of a question the counsellor might ask Melissa to achieve this aim. (Your response should be approximately 20 words)

2.9 Questions can help to guide counselling conversations and further develop a client’s story. However, they must be used appropriately. The table below outlines some potential problematic types of questions. You must complete the table by briefly outlining why each of these types of questions can be problematic. (Your total response should be approximately 100 words in total)

Type of question

  1. Why is this problematic?
  2. Bombardment/grilling
  3. Multiple questions
  4. Questions as statements
  5. Why questions

2.10 Complete the table below by correctly identifying what type of question each of the examples is a form of. Each question is one of the following:

  • Closed.
  • Compound/double-barrelled.
  • Open.
  • Question as statement.
  • Why questions.

2.11 Explain why counsellors should avoid asking clients compound/double-barrelled questions and what they should use instead. (Your response should be approximately 75 words).

Responding Skills AND Noting and Reflecting

2.12 Complete the table below by identifying which counselling microskill (encourager, paraphrase, reflection of feeling, or summary) is being used in each of the counselling examples. (Note: Each microskill may be used more than once.)

Example

a) Client: “I’m here to see you because I’m really lost.”
Counsellor: (nodding head) “Uh-huh…”
?????
b) Client: “There are just so many problems going on with my family; it’s all too much.”
Counsellor: “It feels overwhelming…”
?????
c) Client: “I’ve told my wife that I’ve decided to move to Sydney for this new job and she was upset. She doesn’t want to move.”
Counsellor: “I see. You’ve decided to change jobs and move to Sydney, but your wife doesn’t want to.”
?????
d) Client: “Like I said last week, there is this new job in Sydney and I want to move but my wife isn’t happy about it. So I haven’t talked to her about it since last week. It’s also because there’s no guarantee that I’ll get the job, plus we are having a lot of family issues right now. My son is in his last year of high school and he doesn’t want to move, so he is rebelling at the moment. My youngest daughter is sick and a new environment would not be ideal for her. I need to sort these out before discussing it with my wife again”.
Counsellor: “Last week we talked about the possibility of you moving to Sydney with a new job. Today you’ve mentioned various family issues to sort out before you’re able to make that move and you have agreed to hold off discussing it further with your wife until you know for sure if you have the job or not. Is that right?”
?????


2.13 Imagine that you are counselling a 35-year-old client, Sean, who has come to talk about his divorce. During the session he says: “I am really lost right now. Eleanor still won’t let me see the kids and I miss them so much. I can take her to court for a custody hearing but the lawyer would charge me an arm and a leg and I’m not sure I’d be able to trust him even if I could find the money. I just don’t know what to do.”
a) In the space below, write what you would say to Sean to provide an appropriate paraphrase of what he has said. You must ensure that your response includes all four dimensions of a lengthy paraphrase (i.e., a sentence stem, use of key words, reflection of the essence of what the client has said, and a checkout). (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


b) Consider everything you have learned about counselling microskills and briefly outline at least one (1) appropriate non-verbal technique and one (1) appropriate verbal technique that you would use during the remainder of your session to help keep Sean engaged in the counselling process. (Your response should be no more than 50 words.)
?????


2.14 What is the difference between a paraphrase and a summary? Why might a counsellor use each? (Your response should be approximately 100 words)
?????


2.15 When used appropriately, reflection of feeling is a very useful counselling communication skill that can help enable the client to explore the emotional dimensions of their concerns. List three (3) potential sources of information that a counsellor could use to help identify the client’s emotions. (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
?????


2.16 Imagine that you are counselling Jamie. Jamie has been referred to counselling because he has been getting into fights at school. During the course of the initial interview, you ask him about his home life. Some of Jamie’s statements are presented in the table below. You must complete the table by writing what you could say in response to each of Jamie’s statements using the indicated microskill and briefly outline the potential impact that your response would have on the counselling conversation. (Your total response should be approximately 200 words)

2.17 The purpose of providing client feedback is to:

  • Let the client know what you find annoying about them.
  • Ensure that you, as the counsellor, are in charge of the session.
  • Help clients identify behaviour, thoughts or emotions that may be contributing to their issue.???

2.18 List three (3) strategies that can be used when giving clients feedback to reduce the likelihood of them responding defensively. (Your total response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


A Note on Silence

2.19 As a counsellor, the effective use of silence can be a valuable communication tool. List three (3) benefits that the use of silence can have for counselling. (Your total response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


2.20 Briefly outline what you should do if there is an extended period of silence during your counselling session with a client. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


Microskills in Action

2.21 A counsellor, Imelda, and her client, Max, are talking about his experiences as a child in boarding school. Imelda notices that Max is becoming increasingly withdrawn and giving monosyllabic answers. He seems tense and is avoiding making eye contact with her and she senses that this had been a really difficult, traumatic time for him. Imelda immediately changes the subject and asks Max what films he has seen lately.
a) What non-verbal cues might indicate that Max is experiencing a strong emotional reaction? (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
?????


b) Briefly describe Imelda’s key responsibility, given that strong emotions have arisen in session, and the skills that she should use in responding to Max. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


c) Is it always necessary and helpful for clients to talk about the emotions that arise in counselling sessions? Why or why not? (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
?????


d) What could Imelda say to indicate to Max that she is attending to his communication and seeking to understand what is happening? (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


e) What would you recommend that Imelda do if Max indicates that he does not want to talk about his experience at boarding school and how he feels about it? (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


Integrating your Knowledge

The following questions require you to draw upon all of the knowledge and skills you have learned throughout Sections 1 and 2 of the Study Guide.

2.22 Complete the table below by briefly outlining at which stage or stages of the counselling interview each of the counselling techniques is most often used. (Your total response should be approximately 100 words)

  • Technique
    • Attending behaviour
    • Client observation
    • Questioning
    • Responding (encouragers, paraphrasing, summarizing)
    • Noting and reflecting
    • Giving client feedback
      ?????

2.23 Imagine that you are counselling Eloise, who is experiencing relationship issues. Eloise tells you that her husband has told her that she never listens to him. You notice in your sessions that Eloise repeatedly interrupts you and ignores what you have said. You feel that this might have some bearing on her communication difficulties with her husband. What technique would you use in this situation and what would you hope to achieve by using it? (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


2.24 Imagine that a counsellor has been talking with a client, Melanie, about the difficulties she is having with her body image and how her husband, Adrian, has been exacerbating this issue by commenting on her weight gain.
The counsellor says, “So when Adrian comments on your weight, you feel ashamed but angry as well because you’ve told him before that it upsets you.” What technique is the counsellor using and what effect might it have on Melanie? (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


2.25 Cam, a beginning counsellor, has just received a review of his work practises from his supervisor. Having observed a few of Cam’s counselling sessions with clients, his supervisor has made the following observations:

  • Cam’s office is very messy and he conducts sessions sitting behind his desk with his door open.
  • Cam seems quite distracted – he fidgets and taps his pen on his desk.
  • He tends to get stuck in straight away, asking clients lots of questions about goals before the client has had time to talk about an issue in any great depth.
  • Cam’s supervisor notices that Cam has a very specific way of running sessions which involves a lot of role-playing with all of his clients, regardless of their learning style.
  • Cam also takes lots of notes during sessions. He presents pages of them in supervision.
  • Most of Cam’s clients report finding it difficult to talk to him.

In the space below, briefly outline what Cam is doing that might be interrupting his counselling communication with clients and what steps can he take to improve things. Hint: It may help to identify any communication barriers that could arise due to Cam’s practices. (Your response should be approximately 150 words)

Section 3

SPECIALIST COUNSELLING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

3.1 Core microskills are generally used to establish rapport, gain a comprehensive understanding of a client’s issues and help identify what the client would like to achieve from the counselling process. Specialist skills such as challenging, focusing, and reframing are typically used too…

  • Enhance client development and growth.
  • Facilitate change in behaviour, thought patterns or emotions.
  • Help clients become aware of ‘blind spots’ that may be contributing to their issue.
  • Offer clients a different perspective of their issue.
  • All of the above.
    ???

3.2 It is usually appropriate to use specialist communication skills…

  • In ‘initiating the session’ stage as a way of building client-counsellor rapport.
  • In the ‘gathering data’ stage as a way of facilitating understanding of the client’s issue.
  • In the ‘mutual goal setting’ stage as a way of supporting the client in the decision making process.
  • In the ‘working’ stage as a way of supporting the client in identifying what they need to change and how they can achieve this.
    ?????


3.3 Select whether the following statements are True or False.

  1. Challenging should be used when the counsellor identifies discrepancies, conflicts, and mixed messages in the client’s experience.
  2. The most effective type of challenging are those that involve direct, harsh confrontations.
  3. When used effectively, challenging can help bring about change in the client’s behaviour.
  4. Challenging can help assist clients to broaden their self-awareness.
  5. Challenging focuses on the person as the problem.

 


3.4 Read the following counselling conversation examples and indicate whether or not the counsellor’s statement is an appropriate use of challenging.

  • Client: [sobbing]. “And now they say she’s terminal. I’m devastated – I don’t think I can do it without her.”
    Counsellor: “Of course you can.”
    Is this an appropriate use of challenging?
  • The client is telling the counsellor how it’s a good thing that she lost their job but has tears welling in her eyes while she is telling the story of having to clear out her desk.
    The counsellor says: “You say that you couldn’t care less about losing your job but you seemed a little teary just then when you were talking about clearing out your desk.”
    Is this an appropriate use of challenging?
  • The client dejectedly tells the counsellor that things are hopeless because everyone hates them.
    The counsellor says: “You say that no-one likes you but you mentioned in our last session that you recently had a surprise birthday party organised by your friends and family. It seems to me that there are people who care about you very much.”
    Is this an appropriate use of challenging?

3.5 Read the following client statements and provide a counsellor response that effectively uses the skill of challenging. Remember that challenges must be sensitive, appropriate, and professional. Hint: Reading D may help with this question. (Each response should be approximately 30 words)

a) (After indicating that she has just bought an expensive dress) “I’m really worried about how I’m going to pay this month’s rent.”
?????
b) (Client breaks eye contact, sighs, and slumps in their chair) “Yes, it would be good to get to the library to get that vocational information you suggest… I know it would be helpful for me.”????


c) “Nothing is more important to me than my family. I like to spend a lot of time with them.” (A few minutes later) “My work is my number one priority – it has to come first.”
?????


3.6 List three (3) things that counsellors should keep in mind when using challenging to help ensure that the client does not response defensively. (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


Focusing

3.7 Select whether the following statements are True or False.

  1. Focusing can enable the counsellor to direct the client’s focus onto themselves (the client).
  2. Focusing enables the counsellor to convince the client that the counsellor’s opinion is the best one.
  3. Focusing enables the client to talk about unrelated matters whenever they like.
  4. Focusing is used to direct attention to specific dimensions and areas of the client’s life and experience.
     

3.8 Briefly explain what each of the following types of focusing are. (Each response should be approximately 20 words)

  1. Focusing clients on themselves.
  2. Focused exploration.
  3. Focused responding.
    ?????


3.9 Focusing skills are used to direct attention to specific dimensions and areas of the client’s life and experiences. The box below provides examples of statements/questions that a counsellor can use to focus a client on particular dimensions.

Consider the following client statement and write a response that uses focused responding for each area identified below. Write these responses as though you are a counsellor speaking to Theresa. (Each response should be approximately 20 words)

Theresa: “I just broke up with my boyfriend Diego and I feel pretty awful. He wanted to get married and have kids, but I didn’t. I think I still want to be friends, but he won’t have anything to do with me. My friends think I have made the wrong decision.”

a) Focus on feelings:
?????


b) Focus on the problem:
?????


c) Focus on significant others:
?????


d) Focus on the context:
?????


e) Focus on the counsellor:
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Reframing

3.10 Consider each of the following client statements and write a reframing statement that a counsellor could give that provides another reasonable explanation for the event or circumstance that the client is discussing. Remember that reframing must be done sensitively and appropriately.
Hint: Reframing is a challenging skill to master; you might like to review Reading F for examples of reframing before you answer the following questions. (Each response should be approximately 50 words)
Marcel is studying at TAFE. He tells his counsellor, “I think my teacher thinks I don’t pay attention in class. She’s always asking for my opinion in discussions, like she’s trying to catch me out and prove I wasn’t listening or something.”
?????


Billy started attending counselling after being made redundant at work. During one session, he says starts talking about his wife, Sarah. He says, “I’m worried that Sarah is having an affair. She always says that she’s working long hours, and when I took her out for dinner the other night so we could have some time together, she didn’t seem to want to be there. She just yawned all evening.”
?????


Jackie has a habit of quickly skimming through work emails, which means that she has missed important information more than once. She is upset after a work meeting, and tells her counsellor, “I’m such an idiot. They were talking about this strategy that I have no idea about. It must be common knowledge – everyone else in the room had something to say about it. But I didn’t even understand half of what they were saying. I don’t think I’m cut out for this job.”
?????


3.11 Read the following counselling scenarios and select whether or not you would use reframing in these situations.

  • To convince a client that their perspective is wrong.
  • To offer a more realistic view in response to a client’s belief that she is useless at everything.
  • In an initial session when a client is talking about what has brought her to counselling.
  • To help a client who is experiencing relationship issues consider alternative motivations or explanations for their partner’s actions.

 

Counselling Skills in Action

3.12 Select whether the following statements are True or False.

  1. Challenging can be a particularly effective technique when working with clients who are If a client is ‘stuck’ in a particular pattern of behaviour/thoughts.
  2. If a client appears to be nervous and is focusing on small problems during the initial counselling session then the counsellor should challenge the client to talk about “more important” problems.
  3. Reframing can be a useful technique when working with mandated clients.
  4. Counsellors should consider each individual client’s needs and background before using specialist counselling skills like focusing, reframing, and challenging.
     

Integrating Your Knowledge

The following questions require you to draw upon all of the knowledge and skills you have learned throughout the first three sections of the Study Guide.

3.13 Counsellor Eric has developed an effective counselling relationship with his client, Carter, and has a good understanding of the issues Carter is struggling with. They are now in the ‘working’ stage of the counselling process and Eric wants to help Carter develop insight into his family issues and implement the changes he’s identified as a priority.
Complete the table below by identifying which specialist counselling skill (challenging, focusing, reframing) would be most appropriate for Eric to use in each case.

?????


3.14 Read the following client/counsellor transcript and identify which specialist counselling skill (i.e., challenging, focusing, or reframing) would be most appropriate to use at that particular point and describe the potential impact this may have on the client.

a) Client: “So I was walking down the street and there was Bernadette. I was so excited to see her – I haven’t seen her for ages. She was across the street and I couldn’t cross just then but I waved at her and she just completely blanked me! Well, I was going to ask her to Rachel’s wedding but now she’s off the wedding list.”

  • What specialist skill would it be most appropriate for the counsellor use at this point?????
  • What beneficial impact might it have on the client? (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
    ?????


b) Client: “My family is quite religious and they’ve always looked down on single mothers. I haven’t told them that I’m pregnant yet. I guess that’s why I haven’t really mentioned them.”

  • What specialist skill would it be most appropriate for the counsellor use at this point??????
  • What beneficial impact might it have on the client? (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
    ?????


c) Client: “I’m definitely going to call her. This has gone on long enough and I can’t move forward until we sort things out.” (and then reports in the next session that he did not make the call).

  • What specialist skill would it be most appropriate for the counsellor use at this point??????
  • What beneficial impact might it have on the client? (Your response should be approximately 30 words)
    ?????


3.15 Read the following extracts from a counselling conversation and identify which counselling skill (challenging, focusing, reflection of feeling, reframing, responding skills) the

counsellor is using.

3.16 In which situation(s) would it NOT be appropriate to use specialist counselling skills (i.e., focusing, reframing, and challenging)?

  • You identify a pattern of avoidance and decide that you need to bring it to your client’s attention.
  • Your client is distressed and crying about a recent car accident she was involved in.
  • Sessions are going well but your client is constantly putting herself down. You’d like to help her see herself more realistically.
  • Your client has mentioned feeling isolated but has not talked about his large Italian family at all.
  • Your client is extremely anxious about counselling and it is the first counselling session.
  • A & B
  • B & D
  • B & E

 

Section 4

COUNSELLING PRACTICE

Ethical Practice

4.1 Read the following extracts from the Australian Counselling Association’s Code of Ethics and Practice before responding to the following questions.
“Counsellors work with clients in ways that affirm both the common humanity and the uniqueness of each individual. They must be sensitive to the cultural context and worldview of the client, for instance whether the individual, family or the community is taken as central.
Counsellors are responsible for working in ways that respect and promote the client's ability to make decisions in the light of his/her own beliefs, values and context.
Counsellors have a responsibility to consider and address their own prejudices, stereotyping attitudes and behaviour. They are to give particular consideration to ways in which these may be affecting the counselling relationship and influencing their responses.”
(Adapted from ACA, pp. 7-8)

 


Self-Reflection

4.2 Briefly outline three (3) ways in which self-reflection can help counsellors improve their practice. (Your total response should be approximately 150 words)
?????


4.3 Briefly outline the five steps of the reflective practice cycle and how counsellors can use it to reflect on and evaluate their own communication with clients. (Your response should be approximately 100 words)
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4.4 Imagine that a counsellor, Jake, has used the reflective practice cycle and identified that he has difficulty understanding the cultural background of his diverse clients and this sometimes results in him allowing his own values to influence the counselling relationship. What could Jake do to address his gaps in knowledge/skills related to working with diverse clients? (Your response should be approximately 50 words)
?????


Self-Reflection and Ethical Practice

4.5 Identify the set of guidelines that you should consult to ensure your practice is in line with ethical principles? (Your response should be approximately 10 words)
?????


4.6 Imagine that a counsellor, Mark, undertakes a process of structured self-reflection. Observations about his practice are detailed in the table below. Complete the table by correctly identifying which legal/ethical principle each of his observations relate to (confidentiality, discrimination, duty of care, practitioner/client boundaries, or privacy).

?????


4.7 Counsellors must be aware of their own values so that they can ensure that these values do not interfere in their work with clients. To help you start developing a deeper awareness of your own values, complete the following Values Questionnaire. (Adapted from Corey, G., Corey, M., Corey C & Callanan, P. (2015). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.)
Note: Your personal responses to the questionnaire will not be assessed, however evidence that you have completed the activity is required.


4.8 Choose one of the clients from the previous question that you think might be challenging to work with given your values and beliefs. If you have answered ‘A’ to all of the examples above, think of a client that might be problematic for you to work with personally. Identify which client you have chosen and describe how your own values might impact on the counselling relationship between you and this client. (Your response should be approximately 150 words)
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4.9 A counsellor, Alex, reads the following extract in the ACA’s Code of Ethics and Practice.

4.10 Briefly outline two (2) benefits of taking client session notes. (Your total response should be approximately 50 words)
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4.11 List the key elements that a counsellor's session notes should typically include. (Your response should be approximately 75 words)
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4.12 How can a counsellor ensure that note taking does not negatively affect the counselling communication process? (Your total response should be approximately 50 words)
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4.13 Complete the table below by briefly explaining how each of the following legal/ethical principles relate to note taking. (Your total response should be approximately 100 words)

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Integrating Your Knowledge

The following questions require you to draw upon all of the knowledge and skills you have learned throughout this Study Guide.

4.14 Read the following extract from a journal that a counsellor uses as a method for self-reflection.
KB was late again. I felt really annoyed and frustrated with her so I told her “you’re always late for sessions – you’re obviously not committed to changing your situation.” She got very defensive. Not a great start!
I haven’t been taking any notes as KB talks so fast (she’s very stressed out which makes me all stressed out as well!) so we had to spend a bit of time reviewing the previous session. We used the visual charts which seem to be working well for her.
KB said she hadn’t attended her job interviews last week. I told her that I thought claiming from Centrelink for such an extended period wasn’t right and that she needed to really focus on getting work. She went a bit quiet after that. Her boyfriend Matt seems to be important to her so I thought it might help to focus a bit more on her relationship with him. She seemed to be a bit more engaged then – sitting upright and making a bit more eye contact. Matt thinks that working is “for fools” apparently and she spoke about how dismissive he is sometimes. She got a bit upset at that point. I showed her that I was listening and helped her identify some of her emotions using the ‘feelings wheel’. I felt we were on the same page then.
KB said that actually there had been a job which sounded quite interesting but Matt talked her out of applying for it. She then said that talking things through in the session had made her realise that Matt had his own issues about work and that she would apply for the job as soon as she got home. KB also mentioned that she is having problems with her landlord as her flat is full of stuff and she just can’t bring herself to throw anything away. It sounds to me like she might have a problem with hoarding which I don’t know much about. I summarised the session for KB including the goals for the week, I made a note to look up some information about the hoarding and ended the session there.


a) Identify three (3) examples of things that the above counsellor did effectively within their work with KB. (Your response should be approximately 100 words)
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b) Identify three (3) opportunities for counsellor improvement within this scenario. (Your total response should be approximately 150 words)

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