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Statics of structures and environmental considerations

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Added on: 2022-11-16 11:15:40
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ContextCompiled from; United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization – Country profile2016 and Australian Government DFAT Country Brief

Sea-level rise is negatively impacting many Pacific Islands Countries and Territories. In the Solomon Islands, sea-level rise is particularly acute due to current movements, the geography of low-lying islands, and the physical structure and locations of villages on the islands.

The Solomon Islands is a country in the South Pacific Ocean, lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu, composed of around 1000 islands of which approximately 350 are inhabited. The country has a total area of 28 900 km2The islands vary considerably, from a small, tiny atoll island to a high mountainousheavily dense rainforested island; the highest point on the islands is MountPopomanaseu at 2310 m on the island of Guadalcanal. Flat land is restricted to the coasts and is of a limited extent. Approximately 80-85 percent of the total land area is natural forest (SOPAC, 2007).

The Solomon Islands have a tropical monsoon climate with a relatively high and uniform temperature, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures fluctuate between25ºC to 32ºC during the day and some degrees less during the night. The mean annual rainfall is estimated at 3000 mm, ranging from 1500 to 5000 mm and with a total exceeding 8000 mm on high peaks. This wide variation depends on the topography, latitude, and orientation of the islands to prevailing winds. The dry season is from April to November and the wetter north-west monsoon season is from November to April.

The Solomon Islands is one of the Pacific's poorest countries, with high costs of service delivery due to a small and geographically dispersed population. Most of the population is involved in subsistence/cash crop agriculture, with less than a quarter involved in paid work.

Australia is Solomon Islands' main development partner, providing over $161.7 million in Official Development Assistance in 2019-20. Australian development cooperation focuses on supporting stability, enabling economic growth, and enhancing human development.

An engineered solution is required for a local village in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands. The village requires a new bridge to be built to replace the old bridge, which was washed away during the last wet season, the temporary log bridge temporarily in place at present has become unsafe. The single-lane bridge is required to span the gorge between two banks which are 10 meters apart. The river gorge is over 25 meters high. The new bridge should be able to accommodate the regular traffic of villages moving to and from their fields by foot and motorbike and be able to allow a small truck loaded with produce to cross. The available space for the bridge approach slab and abutment from the old bridge is still in place and usable so the bridge can be designed to rest on the existing abutments.

Task

Your task is to use the Engineering problem-solving process to:

1 develop an engineering solution for a walkway across a gorge, in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands

2 document the problem-solving process used to predict, test, and refine the engineered solution to the bridge problem in a folio (Part A)

3 provide DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) with a summary report of the preferred engineering solution (Part B).

The folio must include the construction of a virtual prototype constructed true to size (scale1:1) and analysis of data collected from the testing of the prototype to refine and validate the engineered solution. Engineering knowledge of mechanics, materials, and technologies should also be used to validate and refine the engineered solution. (Note: Detailed calculations of any torsional forces resisted by the structure are not required).

The following is required to complete this task:

Part A

1 recognize and describe

the characteristics and features of the bridge, including knowns, unknowns, assumptions, and boundaries

the engineering mechanics and materials science fundamentals of the bridge problem

mitigation of environmental and sustainability impacts, including corrosion, habitat loss, erosion, and life-cycle assessment associated with the bridge and the location

2 symbolize and explain ideas and the developed solution to the bridge problem using annotated sketching, drawings including basic drawing standards (hand OrCAD), force vectors, free-body diagrams, graphs, tables, and/or schemas

3 analyze the walkway problem and the associated engineering mechanics, materials science, technology, and research information about structures to identify the elements, components, and features, and their relationship to the structure of the problem, including project management milestones, i.e. resources time constraints

4 determine solution success criteria, considering the identified elements, components, and features, and their relationship to the structure of the bridge problem, including for example a truss performance index

5 synthesize engineering mechanics, materials science, technology, and research information and ideas to predict possible solutions to the bridge problem

6 evaluate and refine ideas and solution development about developed solution success criteria including testing of materials and processes, e.g. cross-beam experiment to determine beam performance index, compression testing

7calculations using mechanics concepts and principles to predict prototype solution performance

evaluation of prototype solution performance data and the reliability of the prototype solution, including the use of the truss performance index

8 generate the prototype solution for testing including virtual and/or physical manipulation of materials, scale modeling, 3Dprinting, laser cutting annotations on photographs or screen capture of the prototype solution before and after testing performance of destructive, non-destructive, and/or virtual testing of the prototype solution to provide performance data

9 recommend and justify future modifications or enhancements to ideas and the solution to the structural problem

10 communicate the development of ideas and the solution for the walkway problem using written and visual features, e.g. PMI (plus, minus, interesting) charts, sketches, drawings, diagrams, graphs, tables, and/or schemas

11 communicate data using diagrams, tables, and/or spreadsheets.

Part B

1 Develop a summary report for DFAT, drawn from Part A documentation. The summary report includes key pictures, tables, graphs, sketches, and drawings to provide a concise account of the preferred solution to the walkway problem, including key features and any recommendations made to inform future solution development.

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  • Uploaded By : Katthy Wills
  • Posted on : November 16th, 2022
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