You are Required to Analyze Data Related to Nutrition and Health
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You are required to analyze data related to nutrition and health for 331331individuals collected from 30 hospitals around the world.
Data is from a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and dietary factors, and plasma concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids. Study subjects were patients who had an elective surgical procedure during a three-year period to biopsy or remove a lesion of the lung, colon, breast, skin, ovary, or uterus that was found to be non-cancerous.
The dataset contains331331observations on the following1616variables.
Age: Subject's age (in years)
Smoke: Current smoking status, coded as No or Yes
Vitamin: Vitamin use: coded as 1=Regularly, 2=Occasionally, or 3=No
Calories: Number of calories consumed per day
Fat: Grams of fat consumed per day
Fiber: Grams of fiber consumed per day
Alcohol: Number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week
Cholesterol: Cholesterol consumed (mg per day)
BetaDiet: Dietary beta-carotene consumed (mcg per day)
RetinolDiet: Dietary retinol consumed (mcg per day)
BetaPlasma:Plasma beta-carotene (ng/ml)
RetinolPlasma:Plasma retinol (ng/ml)
Sex: Coded as Female or Male
SmokeHistory: Smoking history, coded as Never, Former, or Current
Country: Country of residence, coded as the UK: United Kingdom, US: USA, AU: Australia, EU: Europe, AS: Asia, SA: South and Central America
Answer the following questions from the sample with regard to the population
1)Use the information about vitamin use, smoking history, and age variables from your sample.
Is there a significant association between vitamin use and smoking history for people who are older than 50 years old?
What does being associated mean in this context? Interpret your findings.
2)Test whether the mean grams of fat consumed in a day for smokers is less than for former smokers.
3)Test whether the mean number of alcoholic drinks consumed per day is different between the types of smoking history.
If so, determine which type(s) of smoking history has a statistically different mean.
- Use Bootstrapping to compute an 86%confidence interval for the difference between the mean micrograms of beta-carotene consumed (BetaDiet) for UK and AU residents.
- Approximate a86%confidence interval based on a t-distribution for the difference between the mean micrograms of beta-carotene consumed (BetaDiet) for UK and AU residents.
- How do the results compare? Justify your answer.
5)Draw a scatterplot of age vs cholesterol level. Does there appear to be a linear relationship between these variables?
Measure the strength of the linear relationship.
Can a genuine causal relationship be established from this study? Justify your answer.
6)Test if there is a linear relationship between age and cholesterol level.
If so, predict a person's age, from the cholesterol level. What is your point estimate of the population age when the cholesterol level is58.858.8mg?
How good is your fit? Discuss the suitability and/or strength of your model.
7)Can the results be generalized to all people? Justify your answer.
Write up your analysis and results and cover all the marking criteria for each question.
Your report must include the questions (you must include the question statement in your submission), the question number would be clear, and solutions. The code, the output(result), your conclusions, reasoning, and discussions must be in the report. We are not asking you to write a long essay for each question, but you should provide brief explanations of what you did, why you did it, and what the result means...
Good use of markdown will be examined, eg. the use of chunks and text parts (Markdown), headings, numbering, etc. Your paper should look professional and easy to read, each question should be numbered and questions must be written on the paper.
You must prepare your project with RMarkdown, then knit it into a Word document and save this Word file as a PDF. ThensubmityourPDFreport by the due date to the link in vUWS Assignment Submit Your Project.
Note that, you do not need to knit to PDF, just knit to Word and save it as PDF.
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