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208 Microbiology Assignment

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Added on: 2023-02-10 10:33:21
Order Code: EQB8 9_2_23
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Codon on mRNA (5’-3’) and corresponding amino acid
UUA    leucine              AAG    lysine                UAA    stop                  UGC                cysteine
GCA    alanine              GUU    valine                AAU    asparagine        UCG, UCU      serine                       

1. The anticodon (5’?3’) in tRNA for the amino acid lysine is

a. CUU
b. GAA
c. TTC
d. UUC

2. If a strand of mRNA reads 5’ AAU GUU AAG 3’, the amino acid sequence would b

a. asparagine-valine-lysine
b. asparagine-alanine-stop
c. asparagine-valine-asparagine
d. leucine-lysine-serine

3. The best definition of "expression" is:

a. both transcription and translation of a gene
b. the binding of DNA polymerase to the lagging strand
c. translating RNA code into protein code
d. uptake of naked DNA into a cell

4. Constitutive genes:

a. are always expressed
b. are regulated to conserve energy
c. are structural
d. encode repressor proteins

5. An operon is a:

a. group of coordinately regulated genes with related functions
b. group of three nucleotides in mRNA
c. nucleotide sequence in DNA where the RNA polymerase binds
d. nucleotide sequence in RNA that allows the RNA polymerase to proceed down the gene

6. According to the lac operon model, for the synthesis of beta-galactosidase to occur

a. lactose must bind to beta-galactosidase
b. allolactose must bind to the repressor protein
c. the repressor protein must bind to the operator site
d. the repressor protein must not be synthesized

7. When a DNA strand is being synthesized, a bond is formed between two adjacent nucleotides on the same strand.  This bond is called a:

a. hydrogen bond
b. lagging bond
c. ligation bond
d. phosphodiester bond

8. DNA replication is referred to as “semiconservative” because the ds DNA following replication:

a. contains some RNA nucleotides and some DNA nucleotides
b. is made by an enzyme called DNA conservatase
c. is made up of 1 old strand and 1 new strand
d. is made up of 2 strands running in opposite directions

9. Transformation is the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell

a. as fragments of naked DNA
b. by a bacteriophage
c. by cell-to-cell contact
d. by sexual reproduction

10. A plasmid is a(n):

a. ampicillin sensitive strain of E. coli
b. circular, self-replicating DNA molecule that can transmit genes from one bacterium to another
c. eukaryote used in genetic engineering
d. piece of DNA stored in a yeast cell

11. The bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria produces toxin and causes diphtheria only when it is lysogenic.  This means that C. diphtheria:

a. contains a plasmid that carries the genes for diphtheria toxin
b. has been lysed by a T-even phage
c. has undergone transformation
d. is infected with a lysogenic bacteriophage

12. Animal viruses enter host cells by what two mechanisms?

a. budding and lysis
b. endocytosis and blebbing
c. endocytosis and fusion
d. fission and fusion

13. All of the following viruses belong to the Poxviridae EXCEPT:

a. chickenpox
b. cowpox
c. monkeypox
d. smallpox

14. All of the following viruses have been associated with cancer EXCEPT:

a. Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpesviridae)
b. Genital warts virus (Papillomaviridae)
c. Hepatitis B virus (Hepadnaviridae)
d. Rhinovirus (Picornaviridae)

15. HIV belongs to the family Retroviridae. What is a unique feature of the Retroviridae?

a. they are not found outside central Africa
b. they are transmitted by animal bites
c. they have an RNA genome that is copied to DNA
d. they are visible to the unaided eye

16. Which of the following RNA viruses evolved within the last 10 years?

a. poliovirus
c. smallpox
d. West Nile

17. In the laboratory, you used pure cultures of Halobacterium salinarium.  This organism is a ___________ and as such, experiences a(n) ____________environment when placed in
distilled water.

a. halophile; hypotonic
b. psychrophile; isotonic
c. thermophile; hypertonic
d. thermophile; hypotonic

18. RFLPs

a. are fragments of DNA
b. are genes
c. result from digests with restriction enzymes
d. a and c only
e. all of the above

19. Restriction enzymes:

a. are important tools in the process of genetic engineering
b. can not be exported to other countries, their sale is restricted
c. recognize and cut DNA at specific sequences
d. a and c only

20. The procedure in which small amounts of DNA are amplified is called ____________.

a. DNA Fingerprinting
b. gel electrophoresis
c. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
d. restriction digest

21. All of the following are necessary for PCR EXCEPT:

a. DNA polymerase
b. GTP, CTP, TTP, and ATP
c. Primers
d. RNA polymerase

22. What structure is specifically responsible for transporting genetic material from one bacterium to another during conjugation?

a. sheath
b. pili
c. capsid
d. all the above

23. pUC18 is a:

a. gene
b. plasmid
c. recombinant bacterium
d. strain of Escherichia coli

24. In the transformation laboratory, the agar plates _______________ and growth indicated  _____________.

a. contained ampicillin; ability to grow in the presence of this antibiotic
b. were selective; ampicillin resistance
c. were selective; successful transformation
d. all of the above

25. All of the following statements are true about bacteriophages EXCEPT:

a. they are too small to be seen using a light microscope
b. they replicate in young, actively growing bacterial cells
c. they always kill their host cell by lysing it
d. they can be detected by the presence of plaques

Use the following graph, which shows bacteria growth in a medium that contains both glucose and lactose, but contains 10X as much lactose as glucose, to answer questions 26 and 27..

26. During the first log phase, which carbohydrate is being utilized?

a. glucose
b. lactose
c. both glucose and lactose

27. If the bacteria have been in log phase, why do they go through a second log phase?

a. the bacteria are dying
b. the bacteria need to express genes for using glucose
c. the bacteria need to express genes for using lactose
d. the culture has accumulated waste products that inhibit growth

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  • Posted on : February 10th, 2023
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