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HLTOUT005 Assess and deliver standard clinical care Summative Assignment

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Added on: 2023-02-28 07:12:56
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Drug formulas and pharmacology


1. Convert the following:

  • 0.5 micrograms into milligrams
  • 0.5 grams into milligrams
  • 1000 milligrams into grams
  • 250 millilitre into litres

2. A patient requires 1g paracetamol. Available stock is 500mg tablets. How many tablet(s) do you give the patient?

3. Nebulised adrenaline 5mg is required for an adult. Drug stock is 1mg/1ml. How many mls do you give the patient?

4. An 18 year old requires an IM injection of Midazolam 2mg for a seizure. Stock available is (4mg/2ml concentration. What is the amount you need to administer?

5. Morphine 5mg is required for a patient. Stock ampoules are 10mg/1ml. What is the required volume (ml) that you should administer?

6. You are required to give a patient an intramuscular injection of Ceftriaxone 500 mg and the supply on hand is in a vial of 2 grams/2mls. How much do you give the patient?

7. A patient requires Fentanyl 100mcg IV for pain relief as they are allergic to morphine. Available stock is 50mcg/mL. What volume (mL) of Fentanyl do you administer?

8. An overweight 18-year-old male has overdosed on an opioid and requires an antidote of Naloxone 1.6mg. Available stock is 0.4mg/ml. How much do you administer immediately and what is the total amount that may be given, as per the QAS clinical practice guidelines?

9. A 12-year-old patient is nauseated and vomiting. You are to administer IM Metoclopramide 2.5mg. Available stock is 5mg/2ml. How much do you administer?

10. A patient has chest pain and you need to give them oral aspirin of 300mg; however, they weigh approximately 140kgs. How many milligrams do you administer?

11. List three (3) acts of negligence in regards to medication administration.

12. List three (3) breaches of duty related to medications and IV therapy.

13. List the requirements for ambulance service stations and ambulance officers in your state or territory in regards to reporting losses, discrepancies or theft of medication for Schedule 8 drugs.

  • Ambulance service stations
  • Ambulance officers

14. Describe the regulations for the destruction of medications and poisons.

15. Describe the process for the documentation of Schedule 4 and Schedule 8 medications.

16. Outline in your own words the strict criteria for storage, handling and use of S4 and S8 medications. In your answer, include reference to the ‘exceptions’ to the criteria for storage rules.

17. List the eight (8) rights of medication.

18. Define the following pharmacological terms in your own words.

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug
  • Medication
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics

19. Describe the difference between the chemical, generic and brand name drug. Give one (1) example.

20. Describe what constitutes an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine. Provide two (2) examples.

21. Describe the following pharmacokinetics processes in your own words.

  • Absorption
  • Factors affecting drug absorption
  • Bioavailability
  • Distribution
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • The three drug transport systems
  • Plasma proteins
  • Metabolism
  • Biotransformation
  • First pass metabolism
  • Elimination
  • Accumulation and clearance
  • Medication tolerance

22. Describe the therapeutic window in your own words.

23. Describe half-life and its implications in your own words.

24. Describe how pharmacokinetic factors affect the body’s reaction to drugs in your own words.

25. Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in relation to the body in your own words.

26. Describe drug receptors in your own words.

27. Explain the difference between an opiate and an opioid in your own words. 28. List three (3) side effects of an opioid.

29. Explain the management of an opioid overdose in your own words. As part of your answer, refer to the use of a sedation scale.

30. Provide a description and a rationale for the use of the following cardiac medications.

  • Anti-arrhythmic medications
  • Cardiac glycosides
  • Anti-anginal medications
  • Organic nitrates
  • Nitric oxide
  • Coronary vasodilator medications

31. Explain why digoxin overdose is quite common.

32. Explain the purpose of anti-emetic medications.

33. Outline the action of each of these anti-emetic medications.

  • Metoclopramide
  • Prochlorperazine (Stemetil)
  • Ondansetron (Zofran)
  • Granisetron (Kytril)
  • Haloperidol
  • Promethazine (Phenergan)

34. Define the terms below in your own words.

  • Agonists
  • Antagonists
  • Agonist–antagonist
  • Inverse agonists

35. Complete the table in regards to the appropriate use of needles and syringes for medication administration.

Injection site

  • Intradermal deltoid muscle or forearm, thigh, etc
  • Subcutaneous – Adipose tissue of the upper arm, abdomen, thigh, buttocks
  • Intramuscular – Vastus lateralis, gluteus medius or maximus
  • Z-track intramuscularinjection
  • Intravenous – into all areas with direct venous access throughout the body including peripheries and central regions

36. Outline the criteria for injection site selection.

37. List two (2) important reasons for choosing the correct needles and syringes when administering medications.

38. Fill out the table below to demonstrate your knowledge of the administration requirements of these medications.


  • Adrenaline
  • Aspirin
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Fentanyl
  • Glucagon
  • Glucose gel
  • Glucose 10%
  • Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN)
  • Methoxyflurane
  • Midazolam
  • Morphine
  • Naloxone
  • Ondansetron
  • Paracetamol
  • Salbutamol

39. Complete the table below in relation to Schedule 8 drugs and their properties. The first response has been provided as an example.


1. Morphine sulphate


  • Binds with opiate receptors in the CNS
  • Alters the perception of pain
  • Alters the emotional response to pain
  • Still the most effective analgesia for severe pain
  • Available in oral and injectable forms
  • The first narcotic agent and the mainstay analgesic
  • Short half-life (4 hours) so frequent dosing required
  • Age-related dose and titration required
  • Available in many forms: IV, S/C, IM, Oral, Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA)
  • Comes in mg tablets and vials


2. Pethidine

3. Codeine

4. Endone

5. Oxycodone (Oxycontin)

6. Dextropropoxyphene

7. Tramadol (Tramal)

8. Fentanyl

9. Norspan patches

10. Targin

11. Methadone

12. Naloxone

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  • Uploaded By : Katthy Wills
  • Posted on : February 28th, 2023
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