STAT6200 – Statistics Interpretation Report
Read the Kokkinos et al. (2013) paper and answer the following questions:
- Classify the main baseline characteristics (e.g., age, weight, ethnic origin, etc.)according to the statistical test used to generate the results in Table 1. Explain why those tests were appropriate for the given
- Referto the left half/side of Table 2 (Patients treated with statins). Interpret the mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI)
- Refer to the right half/side of Table 2 (Patients not treated with statins). What do thep?values, tell you about the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis of no difference between the lipid values initially and at follow?up?
- Whattype of visual representation is shown in the Figure? Describe the graph based on the given
- In the abstract of the paper, the interpretation reads: (a) “Statin treatment andincreased fitness are independently associated with low mortality among dyslipidaemic individuals.” (b) “The combination of statin treatment and increased fitness resulted in substantially lower mortality risk than either alone, reinforcing the importance of physical activity for individuals with dyslipidaemia.” (Kokkinos et al., 2013) Provide the basis for these statements by presenting data reported in the paper (e.g., values from tables, graphs) and explaining how they support the statements You may use screenshots of the tables and highlight them using boxes/arrows.
Read the Hazrati et al. (2016) paper and answer the following questions:
- What are the demographic characteristics of the participants in the sample? Explainby referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the
- Whatis the research question for this study? Define the null and alternative Describe the variables analysed in the hypothesis testing. What statistical test was used to analyse the association of the variables. Explain.
- Comment on the Pearson’s correlation coefficients found in Table 2. What do thesevalues mean? How would you use these values to answer the research questions?
- Explain the circumstances which would persuade you to use Spearman’s correlationcoefficient rather than Pearson’s
- Whatwas the purpose of the paired t-test in the study? Why was this test appropriate for the analysis? Explain the results of the paired t-test and refer to the appropriate table/graph in the
Read the Oguz et al. (2021) paper and answer the following questions:
- FromTable 1, define how the baseline characteristics of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) participants were broadly categorized. Calculate the mean age, standard deviation (SD) and range of sarcopenic What percentage of females and males together did not develop sarcopenia? State the co-morbidities considered as baseline characteristics from the table.
- FromTable 1, define the test used to determine the association between gender and patients with and without sarcopenia. Explain why this test was appropriate. Is there a significant association that exists between these two variables? Define the non- categorical variables used as baseline characteristics in Table
- The association of anthropometric, body composition and laboratory parameters ofT2DM patients with and without sarcopenia are defined in Table 2. State for which variables the Chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Include the corresponding p-values and determine the statistical significance of
- Define the type of graph that was reported in Figure 2. What does it represent? InFigure 3, identify the type of graph Based on the p-value, report about the distribution of Group 3 (SO) for both Irisin and myostatin.
- Define the statistically significant variables for predicting sarcopenic obesity (reportboth the p-value and confidence interval [CI] from the univariate analysis) reported in Table 5. Report in terms of odds ratios (OR, with 95% CI) which variable was the strongest predictor for sarcopenic obesity (univariate analysis).
Read the paper Parajuli et al. (2022) and answer the following questions:
- What is the source of the sample? How much was the sample size for this study?What was the main outcome variable? What instrument was used to assess the outcome variable?
- How was the normality distribution of Locus of Control (LoC) assessed in this study?What would be your expected results from your normality test/s? What inferential test statistics were used to explore the differences of LoC scores between participant’s characteristics? Is it a parametric or non-parametric test? Explain briefly the reason for choosing those tests?
- Refer to Table 1. What is the proportion (expressed as percentage) of people whowere older than 60 years old? Is age in this table presented as a nominal, ordinal or continuous variable? Justify your Calculate the interquartile range for LoC for total hours worked per week. Show your solution. Using an alpha value of ? 0.05, interpret the interquartile range for this variable using the p-value.
- Referto Table Interpret the LoC based on ASGC-RA classification as living in major city and regional areas. Support your answer by interpreting the confidence interval and p-values. The reference alpha value is ? 0.05.
- Refer to Table 2. What type of regression model was applied to determine thesignificant predictors of LoC? Explain why this type of modelling was used. Looking at the association between LoC and self-rated health, define the null and alternative Given the results of the multivariate analysis for LoC and self-rated health, which hypothesis should be accepted? Explain why.