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English Language & Quantitative Reasoning Assignment

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Added on: 2023-02-22 08:48:54
Order Code: eqb8 21-2-23
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Section 1 - Reading Comprehension

Passage 1

“The water was as clear as glass till 20 years ago, when the drains were cleaner. We could see coins at the bottom of the river. We could drink directly from the Yamuna,” says fisherman Raman Haldar, scooping a cupped palm into the muddy waters, bringing it near his mouth to emphasize the point. Seeing our mortified look, he lets it run down his fingers with a wistful laugh. In today’s Yamuna, plastics, foil wrappers, muck, newspapers, concrete debris, cloth scraps, slush, rotting food and dead flowers from puja offerings, wandering coconuts, chemical foam and water hyacinth offer up a dark reflection of the capital city’s consumption. (Para 1)

The Yamuna flows through the National Capital Territory for 22 kilometres, 1.6% of the river’s length. But the wastes and poisons emptied into that little stretch account for close to 80% of all pollution in the 1,376-kilometre river. Acknowledging this, the monitoring committee report of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in 2018 pronounced the river in Delhi a 'sewer line'. (Para 2)

The resulting severe depletion of oxygen levels in the water causes large-scale deaths of fish. Last year, thousands of fish were found dead at the Kalindi Kunj Ghat on the southern stretch of the river in Delhi. For a river ecosystem to survive, it needs a Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level of 6 and above. Fish require a DO level of at least 4-5. In the Delhi part of Yamuna, the DO is between 0 to 0.4,” says Priyank Hirani, director of the Water-to-Cloud project of the Tata Centre for Development at the University of Chicago. The project maps real-time pollution in rivers. (Para 3)

At the Ram Ghat bank, 52-year-old Haldar says, “I moved here from Kalindi Kunj Ghat three years ago. There’s no fish there, earlier there was plenty. Only some catfish remain now. Quite a few of these are dirty and cause allergy, rash, fever and diarrhoea,” he says, untangling a puffy handmade net. Unlike other species that live deeper in the water, the catfish is able to float to the surface and breathe, and so survives better than the others. Predators in this ecosystem, explains Delhi-based marine conservationist Divya Karnad, concentrate toxins in their body because of eating fish lower down in the food chain exposed to those poisons. “So, people eating the scavenger-carnivore catfish suffer reactions.” Haldar’s sons, unable to take up his occupation, sell mobile phone accessories and momos for a living. Nearby, 35-year-old Sunita Devi says her fisherman husband Naresh Sahni is away, seeking work as a daily labourer. (Para 4)

Nearly 87 per cent of India's fish catch potential is available within waters of a 100-metre depth. Most of that is within reach of the country’s fishing communities. It fosters not just food, but also daily lives and cultures. “Now you're breaking the small-scale economy of the fishers,” points out Pradip Chatterjee, head of the National Platform for Small Scale Fish Workers. “They supply local fish to local markets. If they don't find fish, they will bring it from faraway places, using transport which aggravates the crisis.” Increased use of groundwater too requires more energy and interferes with the water cycle. “Water bodies will get affected, and rivers won't get recharged. Still more energy, from conventional sources, will be needed to fix this and get clean, potable water from the river. We are breaking nature-based economies forcibly, and putting labour, food and production into a corporate cycle that is energy and capital intensive.” A climate crisis, with its fluctuations in rainfall and temperatures, adds layers to the Yamuna problem, says senior environmental consultant Dr. Radha Gopalan, since the quantity and quality of the water is compromised. (Para 5)

1) According to the information in the passage, which of the following is true:

A) The waste in the Jamuna accounts for close to 80% of the total pollutants in the National Capital Region.

B) Nearly 40% of the waste in the Yamuna is emptied into it during its flow through the National Capital Region.

C) The National Capital Region accounts for most of the waste in the Yamuna.

D) The Yamuna runs through the National Capital Region for 1376 kilometres.

2) According to the passage:

A) The Dissolved Oxygen Level of the Yamuna is above 6.

B) The Yamuna waters dissolve oxygen at the rate of 4 or 5.

C) The Dissolved Oxygen Level is one of the ways in which scientists check for whether water can sustain fish.

D) Fish do not survive in water with a DO level of 6 and above.

3) According to the passage, which of the following is a likely chain reaction?

A) Catfish eat other carnivores –> humans eat the same carnivores –> humans fall sick

B) Humans eat small fish –> humans fall sick C) Catfish eat small fish –> humans eat catfish –> humans fall sick

D) Small fish eat catfish -> humans eat catfish -> humans fall sick

4) What is the main idea of the passage?

A) The Yamuna is polluted and therefore the fish in it die.

B) The pollution in the Yamuna causes the death of fish, a shortage of edible fish and loss of livelihoods.

C) Global warming acts on the Yamuna waters to cause the loss of livelihoods.

D) The pollution in the Yamuna is caused by a shortage of rainwater.

5) The author of this passage is likely to support:

A) Policies that encourage the transportation of fish from seaports to the National Capital Region

B) Policies that encourage consumption of local food produce

C) Policies that encourage the use of the Yamuna banks for religious purposes

D) Policies that limit employment potential for those who previously used to be fishermen

6) Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word “depletion” as used in the sentence “The resulting severe depletion of oxygen levels in the water causes large-scale deaths of fish.” (Para 3)

A) increase

B) maintenance

C) theft

D) reduction

7) “If they don't find fish, they will bring it from faraway places, using transport which aggravates the crisis”. If action in this sentence happened in the past, which of the following would be the most correct way to rewrite the sentence?

A) If they will not find fish, they will be bringing it from faraway places, using transport which aggravates the crisis.

B) If they didn't find fish, they would be bringing it from faraway places, using transport which aggravated the crisis.

C) If they did not find fish, they would bring it from faraway places, using transport which aggravated the crisis.

D) If they don't find fish, they are bringing it from faraway places, using transport which aggravates the crisis.

8) Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word “aggravates” as used in the sentence “If they don't find fish, they will bring it from faraway places, using transport which aggravates the crisis …” (Para 5)

A) Worsens

B) Improves

C) Reduces

D) Benefits

9) Which of the following phrases is the closest antonym (opposite) of the word “fluctuation” as used in the sentence beginning: “A climate crisis, with its fluctuations in rainfall and temperatures…”? (Para 5)

A) Changing levels

B) Repetitive actions

C) Maintaining a steady level

D) Causing a continuous reduction

 

Passage 2

The most fascinating journeys are those that lead us backwards in time. Throw in some boulders and slippery rocks and you are in Hampi, Karnataka’s spectacular World Heritage Site. Navigating Hampi’s ancient ruins on the rocky banks of the Tungabhadra calls for some nimbleness. Spread over 30 acres, Hampi is often associated with the resplendent 14th to 17th century Vijaynagara empire. But the complex dates back to a much earlier past. (Para 1)

The sprawling ruins tantalize your imagination, nudging you to reconstruct that remote past. There are relatively recent temples decorated with delicate etchings, prehistoric pottery fragments, Mauryan cave engravings and edicts, all kinds of scarred sculpture and shattered structures, spanning centuries and defying easy categorization. (Para 2)

Hampi is an open-air museum, a puzzle to the historians and archaeologists who throng here. But it also offers something for everyone. For young motor-bikers and Youtubers, stunning locations and lookout points yield selfies against a blue sky. Fancy eateries cook up many cuisines to an international clientele. Adventure-seekers trek up the jutting rocks, cyclists speed through picturesque streets, the pious offer prayers. I am none of these; I am here to drink deep of antiquity, to retrace the steps of traders through the grand marketplace, to skip lightly down the stone stairs where bejewelled feet once walked, to capture on camera the curvaceous maidens populating the mandapa pillars, and to imbibe the ambience of the tranquil village palms and paddy fields. (Para 3)

The gopuram of the Virupaksha temple, garishly whitewashed, cranes over everything. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple is said to have been built by Lakkan Dandesha, a chieftain under Deva Raya II. However, it has probably existed in some basic form from the seventh century, when it used to be dedicated to Pampadevi, goddess of the Tungabhadra. Legend even links Hampi to the ancient Kishkinda kingdom of the Ramayana. Over the centuries, the temple expanded; major and minor shrines were installed near the main shrine during the Chalukya and Hoysala periods, culminating in the majesty of the Vijayanagara era. Subsequent additions were the Queen’s Bath and the Elephant Stables, which blend the best of Islamic and Hindu architecture. (Para 4)

What sets Hampi apart is that despite having been built over many centuries and being ruled by many dynasties, including Muslim ones, the architecture is distinctly Dravidian, and all the structures are constructed of local stone. The Ashokan rock edicts of 269-232 BCE in nearby Nittur and Udegolan suggest that this region was then part of the Mauryan Empire. Sixth century Chalukyan inscriptions in Badami also refer to Pampapura. By the 10th century, under the Kalyana Chalukyas, Hampi was a religious and educational centre; later inscriptions mention royal gifts to Hampadevi. The Hoysalas built temples to Durga, Hampadevi and Siva, according to an inscription dated 1199 C.E. Hampi became the second royal residence; Hoysala kings were known as Hampeya Odeya, “Lord of Hampi”. (Para 5)

According to popular legend, Harihara and Bukka founded the Sangama dynasty in 1323, renaming Hampi Vijayanagara, City of Victory. From 1323 to 1565, under four successive dynasties, Vijayanagara became one of the richest and most famous empires. Peace and prosperity under enlightened rulers who encouraged the arts, learning and architecture made Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalled only by Peking, and reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century. (Para 6)

This flourishing empire attracted thinkers, philosophers, and artists, but also merchants bearing precious metals, bales of silk, skilled woodcraft and bushels of grain. In the sprawling market square ringed by impressive columns, I close my eyes and imagine the haggling voices, the bustle of commerce, the clattering chariots, the songs of minstrels, a city alive and throbbing. (Para 7)

10) According to the information provided in this passage, which of these is true?

A) The earliest we can know for sure that Hampi existed was in the 14th

B) Hampi has existed from time immemorial.

C) Hampi, though referred to by other names, has existed at least from the 3rd century BCE.

D) Hampi was built in the 3rd century BCE.

11) What do you think is the main point of Paragraph 2?

A) There are many kinds of monuments and fragments in the Hampi complex.

B) The remnants of old Hampi are truly picturesque

C) The entire Hampi complex was very likely built by the Mauryan kings.

D) Reconstructing the history of the city from what remains of it today has been a challenging but fascinating task.

12) Which of the following ideas does Paragraph 3 emphasize?

A) Foreign tourists are attracted by Hampi’s many famous restaurants.

B) Hampi has sights and experiences that interest many different kinds of people.

C) The pillars in Hampi often feature bejewelled dancing women.

D) The villages around Hampi have green paddy field and palm trees.

13) What is the author mainly trying to do in Paragraph 5?

A) Give us information about Hampi so that we know why tourists go there today.

B) Give us information about Hampi so that we get a sense of how old it is and how it has developed over time.

C) Give us information about Hampi so that we get a sense of how prosperous it was.

D) Give us information about Hampi so that we can see how it was a centre for trade.

14) Which of the following phrases best describes the mood of Paragraph 7?

A) Scholarly and analytical

B) Light and humorous

C) Dreamy and nostalgic

D) Angry and resentful

15) Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word “sprawling” as used in the sentence that begins “The sprawling ruins tantalize your imagination…”? (Para 2)

A) spread out in an irregular way over a large area

B) built a long time back

C) giving evidence of modern engineering techniques

D) carefully planned constructions

16) Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “distinctly” as used in the sentence ending “the architecture is distinctly Dravidian, and all the structures are constructed of local stone …”? (Para 5)

A) A noun that describes the architecture of the Chalukya ruler

B) A pronoun that indicates who built the later Hampi structures

C) An adverb that means ‘clearly’ or ‘easily evident’

D) A verb that shows how early Muslims in India also worshipped in some of the Hindu temples in Hampi.

17) “Peace and prosperity under enlightened rulers who encouraged the arts, learning and architecture made Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalled only by Peking, and reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century.” (Para 6). If this sentence was to be written in the future tense, which of the following would be a correct version?

A) Peace and prosperity under enlightened rulers who encourage the arts, learning and architecture will make Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalled only by Peking, and reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century. (Para 6)

B) Peace and prosperity under enlightened rulers who had encouraged the arts, learning and architecture made Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalling only Peking, and will reach its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century. (Para 6)

C) Peace and prosperity under enlightening rulers who will be encouraging the arts, learning and architecture will be making Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalled only by Peking, and it will be reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century. (Para 6)

D) Peace and prosperity under enlightened rulers who are encouraging the arts, learning and architecture have made Vijayanagara a splendid city, rivalled only by Peking, and reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century. (Para 6)

18) Which of the following phrases is the closest antonym (opposite) of the word “zenith” as used in the sentence ending “reaching its zenith under Krishna Deva Raya in the sixteenth century”? (Para 6)

A) middle level

B) lowest point

C) highest point

D) approaching the end

Section 2 - Quantitative Reasoning

19) The cost price of 59 notebooks is selling price of 50 notebooks. Then the profit percentage is

A) 13.333 %

B) 20 %

C) 9 %

D) 18 %

20) The scale of a map is given as 5 cm: 60 km. Two cities are 4 cm apart on the map. What is the actual distance between the cities?

A) 40 km

B) 70 km

C) 48 km

D) 30 km

21) A bus started at City A at 7:00 AM and reached City B at 9:30 AM. If the bus does not stop in between and is travelling at 60 kmph speed on average, find the approximate distance between City A and City B.

A) 120 km

B) 230 km

C) 150 km

D) 60 km

22) Aisha gave one-fourth of her money to Balu. Then, Balu gave one-third of what he got from Aisha to John. If Aisha has Rs. 45 left now, how much did John get?

A) 4.5

B) 5

C) 15

D) 6

23) The average age of Anu and Binu is 20. If their ages are in the ratio Anu : Binu = 3:2, then the age of Anu is

A) 24 years

B) 12 years

C) 8 years

D) 30 years

24) Arjun alone can paint a house in 12 days and Ram alone can paint the house in 24 days. How many days does it take for them to paint the house together?

A) 12 days

B) 10 days

C) 6 days

D) 8 days

25) The following graph shows the information on average rainfall in Mahismati city over last 25 years. Among the following statements find the true one.

A) On an average the city receives more rain in April than in August.

B) On an average it rains more often in May than in June.

C) On an average December is the driest month.

D) On an average October is the wettest month.

26) Order the following numbers in increasing order:

27) A and B are two numbers. A is 20% more than C and B is 50% more than C. The ratio of the numbers (A: B) is

A) 4:5

B) 5:2

C) 3:4

D) 2:5

28) If today is Sunday, what day would it be after 25 days?

A) Sunday

B) Tuesday

C) Thursday

D) Saturday

29) The price of 2 kilograms of apples is the same as 5 kilograms of bananas. You have enough money to buy 30 kilograms of bananas. How many kilograms of apples can you buy?

A) 60
B) 15
C) 10
D) 12

30) The areas of two circles are 100 square meters and 25 square meters respectively. Then the ratio of the circumference of the larger circle to the circumference of the smaller circle is

A) 5:2

B) 4:1

C) Need to know the value of pi to find the answer

D) 2:1

31) Mr. X claims, “nobody in this class knows more history than me.” What should you do to prove him wrong?

A) Find at least one person who knows more history than Mr. X.

B) Demonstrate that Mr. X has no knowledge in history.

C) Demonstrate that everyone knows more history than Mr. X.

D) Give Mr. X a test on history.

32) There are 30 students in class. Find which among the following is always true.

A) There are at least two students whose name start with the alphabet A.

B) There are at least two students whose name start with the same alphabet.

C) There are at most two students whose name start with the alphabet A.

D) There are at most two students whose name start with the same alphabet.

33) What percentage of a minute is a second?

A) 0.60 %

B) 1.67 %

C) 0.24 %

D) 2.5 %

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