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Introduction to Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Assignment

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Added on: 2023-02-23 11:29:26
Order Code: eqb7 23-2-23
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    Australia

Introduction

Engineering: It is a profession of converting scientific knowledge into useful practical applications, where the materials & forces in nature are effectively used for the benefit of mankind. An Engineer is a person who plays a key role in such activities.

Civil Engineering: It is the oldest branch of professional engineering, where the civil engineers are concerned with projects for the public or civilians. The role of civil engineers is seen in every walk of life or infrastructure development activity such as follows:-

1. Providing shelter to people in the form of low cost houses to high rise apartments.

2. Laying ordinary village roads to express highways.

3. Constructing irrigation tanks, multipurpose dams & canals for supplying water to agricultural fields.

4. Supplying safe and potable water for public & industrial uses.

5. Protecting our environment by adopting sewage treatment & solid waste disposal techniques.

6. Constructing hydro-electric & thermal-power plants for generating electricity.

7. Providing other means of transportation such as railways, harbour & airports.

8. Constructing bridges across streams, rivers and also across seas.

9. Tunnelling across mountains & also under water to connect places easily & reduce distance.

The different fields of civil engineering and the scope of each can be briefly discussed as follows.

1. Surveying: It is a science and art of determining the relative position of points on the earth's surface by measuring distances, directions and vertical heights directly or indirectly. Surveying helps in preparing maps and plans, which help in project implementation. (Setting out the alignment for a road or railway track or canal, deciding the location for a dam or airport or harbour) The cost of the project can also be estimated before implementing the project.

2. Geo-Technical Engineering (Soil Mechanics): Any building, bridge, dam, retaining wall etc. consist of components like foundations. The foundation is laid from a certain depth below the ground surface till a hard layer is reached.

The soil should be thoroughly checked for its suitability for construction purposes. The study dealing with the properties & behaviour of soil under loads & changes in environmental conditions is called geo-technical engineering. The knowledge of the geology of an area is also very much necessary.

3. Structural Engineering: A building or a bridge or a dam consists of various elements like foundations, columns, beams, slabs etc. These components are always subjected to forces. It becomes important to determine the magnitude & direction the nature of the forces and acting all the time. Depending upon the materials available or that can be used for construction, the components or the parts of the building should be safely & economically designed. A structured engineer is involved in such designing activity. The use of computers in designing the members, is reducing the time and also to maintain accuracy.

4. Transportation Engineering: The transport system includes roadways, railways, air & waterways. Here the role of civil engineers is to construct facilities related to each one. Sometimes crucial sections of railways & roads should be improved. Roads to remote places should be developed. Ports & harbours should be designed to accommodate, all sizes of vehicles. For an airport, the runway & other facilities such as taxiways, terminal buildings, control towers etc. should be properly designed.

5. Irrigation & Water resources engineering (Hydraulics Engineering): Irrigation is the process of supplying water by artificial means to agricultural fields for raising crops. Since rainfall in an area is insufficient or unpredictable in an area, water flowing in a river can be stored by constructing dams and diverting the water into the canals & conveyed to the agricultural fields. Apart from dams & canals other associated structures like canals regulators, aqua ducts, weirs, barrages etc. are also necessary. Hydro electric power generation facilities are also included under this aspect.

6. Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering (Environmental Engineering): People in every village, town & city need potable water. The water available (surface water & ground water) may not be fit for direct consumption. In such cases, the water should be purified and then supplied to the public. For water purification, sedimentation tanks, filter beds, etc. Should be designed. If the treatment plants are for away from the town or city, suitable pipelines for conveying water & distributing it should also be designed. In a town or city, a part of the water supplied returns as sewage. This sewage should be systematically collected and then disposed into the natural environment after providing suitable treatment. The solid waste that is generated in a town or locality should be systematically collected and disposed off suitably. Before disposal, segregation of materials should be done so that any material can be recycled & we can conserve our natural resources.

7. Building Materials & Construction Technology: Any engineering structure requires a wide range of materials known as building materials. The choice of the materials is wide & open. It becomes important for any construction engineer to be well versed with the properties & applications of the different materials. Any construction project involves many activities and also required many materials, manpower, machinery & money. The different activities should be planned properly; the manpower, materials & machinery should be optimally utilized, so that the construction is completed in time and in an economical manner. In case of large construction projects management techniques of preparing bar charts & network diagrams, help in completing the project orderly in time.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the framework of supporting system consisting of roads, airports, bridges, buildings, parks and other amenities for the comfort of mankind.
Economically, infrastructure are the structural elements that allow for production of goods and services without themselves being part of the production process, e.g. roads allow the transport of raw materials and finished products.

Effects of Infrastructure development on the Socio-economic development of a country:

The term infrastructure is widely used to denote the facilities available for the socio-economic development of a region. The infrastructure facilities to be provided for the public include:

1. Transport facilities

2. Drinking water and sanitation facilities

3. Irrigation facilities

4. Power generation & transmission facilities

5. Education facilities

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  • Uploaded By : Katthy Wills
  • Posted on : February 23rd, 2023
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