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Leadership and Management

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Introduction
The ability to lead and manage effectively is highly sought after by industry, as employers seek
to produce and develop managers who can motivate, enthuse and build respect throughout their
workforce. The hard and soft skills required by leaders and managers are frequently highlighted
by employers as skills gaps in recruitment. Developing these skills will help students to meet
career aspirations in leadership and management. The aim of this unit is to help students to
understand the difference between the function of a manager and the role of a leader. Students
will consider the characteristics, behaviours and traits that support effective management and
leadership. Students will learn about the theories that have shaped the understanding of
leadership and management and how these have provided a guide to action for managers and
leaders who want to secure success for their businesses. Students will look at leadership styles,
how and why they are used and the extent to which they are effective. This unit also gives
students an understanding of motivational strategies. They will develop motivational strategies
covering intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of motivation. Finally, students will evaluate the
importance of managing performance in achieving continuous improvement.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit a student will be able to: LO1 Examine leadership and management
theories and principles, and their impact on the effectiveness of an organisation LO2 Review
the influence of different leadership and management styles on the culture of organisations
LO3 Develop a motivational strategy to optimise organisational performance LO4 Apply
leadership and management approaches to managing performance to ensure continuous
improvement

LO1 Examine leadership and management theories and principles, and their impact on
the effectiveness of an organisation

Definitions of management: Defining management, what management is (Fayol), what
managers should do (Peters) and key roles (Mintzberg). Key skills and competences of
management, e.g. team dynamics, planning, decision making, strategic mindset, problem
solving, communicating (verbal and non-verbal), motivating, delegating, managing discipline
and dealing with conflict. Management activities, e.g. planning, organising, motivating and
controlling. Approaches to management, e.g. task orientation and relationship orientation.
Theories of management: Classical theorists, including Administrative (Fayol) and Scientific
(Taylor). Management as a function of organisations (Handy). Modern management theorists,
e.g. Porter, Kotler and Handy. Theories and definitions of leadership: Key theories and
theorists, including: ? transformational (Burns) ? transactional (Bennis, Bass) ?
situational/contingency (Fiedler, Vroom and Yetton, Hersey and Blanchard) ? charismatic
(Conger, Kanungo) ? emotional (Goleman’s six styles). Leadership skills, e.g. communication,
delegation, inspirational motivation, positive attitude, trustworthiness, creative thinking and
innovative problem solving. Competences, e.g. giving and receiving feedback, taking

responsibility for both success and failure, managing cultural sensitivity and diversity, global
outlook and agility. The hard skills of management versus the soft skills of leadership.
Approaches to leadership, e.g. situational, transformational and inspirational. Impacts of
leadership and management: Positive impacts for improving business performance, effective
management of resources, innovation. Negative impacts, e.g. loss of competitive advantage,
stagnation and decline.

Unit 4: Leadership and Management
responsibility for both success and failure, managing cultural sensitivity and diversity, global
outlook and agility. The hard skills of management versus the soft skills of leadership.
Approaches to leadership, e.g. situational, transformational and inspirational. Impacts of
leadership and management: Positive impacts for improving business performance, effective
management of resources, innovation. Negative impacts, e.g. loss of competitive advantage,
stagnation and decline.

LO2 Review the influence of different leadership and management styles on the culture
of organisations

Leadership styles: Different types of leadership, including Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s
Continuum of Leadership Styles, Linkert’s Systems 1–4, and McGregor’s Theory X/Theory
Y. Adapting leadership styles to apply in different business situations and the required hard
and soft skills. Impacts of leadership and management styles on decision making in a business
organisation. Types of culture: Defining culture and types of culture, including: ? Four types,
Power, Role, Task, Person (Handy) ? Tough-Guy Macho, work hard/play hard, bet-yourcompany, Process (Deal and Kennedy). The importance and value of culture for work ethic,
organisational performance, health of the organisation. Factors influencing culture: Factors that
influence the development of an organisational culture, e.g. mission, vision and values. The
impact of emerging digital technologies, e.g. social digital connectivity and global dynamic
complexity on organisational structure, location, infrastructure, internal rules and procedures.
The impact of digital technologies on leadership and management attitudes and behaviours,
e.g. drive and flexibility to direct and navigate business through disruptive innovation,
empowering virtual teams and communities, agility to balance improving efficiency while
promoting innovation. The importance of leadership and management styles in setting and
embedding organisational culture.

LO3 Develop a motivational strategy to optimise organisational performance

Theories of motivation: Content theories, including Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland and
application to different work situations. Process theories, including Expectancy theory
(Vroom), Equity theory (Adams) and Goal Theory (Locke) and application to different work
situations. Impacts of motivation on organisational performance: Implications for improved
job satisfaction, performance and productivity, including different variables, e.g. social,
cultural organisational and environmental. Motivational Strategy: Financial and non-financial
strategies, e.g. to recognise and reward performance, encourage collaborative team working,
to embed praise and frequent feedback to individuals and encourage creativity and innovation.
Different strategies for addressing and managing unsuccessful performance and demotivated
employees. Elements of a comprehensive strategy e.g. providing a range of incentives to meet
different personalities, creating positive reinforcement and equality.
LO4 Apply leadership and management approaches to managing performance to ensure
continuous improvement
Leadership and management approaches: The advantages and disadvantages of different
management approaches, including task orientation and relationship orientation. The
advantages and disadvantages of different leadership approaches, including situational,
transformational and inspirational. Communication processes and strategies applied in

Unit 4: Leadership and Management

different business situations, e.g. dealing with conflict, resistance to change, cultural
awareness. Defining capabilities and skills for a transformational environment, e.g.
multicultural perspectives, coaching and mentoring, aligning to changing business goals.
Definition of performance management: Definition of performance management and the
purpose of performance management to improve individual and team performance. Different
approaches, e.g. annual appraisal versus continuous performance management, including
weekly check-ins/ on-the-job conversations. Qualitative and quantitative measures of
effectiveness: Qualitative measures, e.g. satisfaction rates, motivation levels, success of
training and development, attitude. Quantitative measure, to include incidence of sickness,
absenteeism, accidents at work, timekeeping, meeting deadlines, accuracy of work carried out,
wastage, output, productivity. Methods of rewarding good performance: The financial and nonfinancial methods available to the organisation. The influence of variables, including size,
location, competitiveness of the organisation on the reward methods available. The influence
of leadership and management approaches on rewarding good performance.

Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria

Recommended Resources Textbooks ADAIR, J. (2019). Develop Your Leadership Skills: Fast, Effective Ways to Become a Leader People Want to Follow. Kogan Page. KELLY, P. and COLE, G. (2020) Management: Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. Cengage. MULLINS, L. J. (2019) Organisational Behaviour in the Workplace 12th Ed. Harlow: Pearson. ORTI, P and MIDDLEMISS, M. (2019). Thinking Remote. Inspiration for Leaders of Distributed Teams. Virtual Not Distance Websites www.businesstrainingworks.com www.managementstudyguide.com www.managementtoday.com www.mindtools.com www.tedtalks.com Business Training Works Resources (General reference) Management Study Guide Management Functions (General reference) Management Today Leadership News and industry articles (General reference) Mind Tools Leadership (General reference) TED Talks Business and technology (Video resources) Links This unit links to the following related units: Unit 20: Organisational Behaviour Unit 24: Understanding and Leading Change Unit 46: Developing Individuals, Teams and Organisations

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  • Posted on : May 16th, 2024
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